உதவி:Citation Style 1

கட்டற்ற பன்மொழி அகரமுதலியான விக்சனரியில் இருந்து.

வார்ப்புரு:short description வார்ப்புரு:Wikipedia how to வார்ப்புரு:Nutshell வார்ப்புரு:notice Citation Style 1 (CS1) is a collection of reference citation templates that can be modified to create different styles for different referenced materials. Its purpose is to provide a set of default formats for references on Wikipedia. It includes a series of templates that in turn use Module:Citation/CS1.

The use of CS1 or of templates is not compulsory; per WP:CITESTYLE:

Wikipedia does not have a single house style. Editors may choose any option they want; one article need not match what is done in other articles or what is done in professional publications or recommended by academic style guides. However, citations within a given article should follow a consistent style.

WP:CITEVAR additionally states:

வார்ப்புரு:quote

CS1 uses (in addition to Wikipedia's own Manual of Style), elements of The Chicago Manual of Style and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with significant adaptations.

There are a number of templates that use a name starting with cite; many were developed independently of CS1 and are not compliant with the CS1 style. There are also a number of templates that use one of the general use templates as a meta-template to cite a specific source.

To be compliant with CS1, a template must:

  • Use Module:Citation/CS1 or one of the templates listed below.
  • Use a period as a punctuation mark to separate fields and end the citation.
  • Use a semicolon as a punctuation mark to separate authors and editors.
  • Format the title of longer works in italics.
  • Format the title of short works such as chapters in quotes.

Templates[தொகு]

General use[தொகு]

The following is a list of templates that implement Citation Style 1 for one or more types of citations but are not restricted to any specific source.

வார்ப்புரு:Yes Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget can generate the template anytime user wishes. However, this does not mean that the tool or gadget fully supports all parameters or provides an interface for them. In fact, none of the mentioned items do so.
வார்ப்புரு:Partial Indicates that the corresponding tool or gadget may or may not generate the corresponding template. For more information, see associated footnote.
General use CS1 templates
Template Use Citoid Citation expander RefToolbar 2.0 ProveIt SnipManager
{{Cite arXiv}} arXiv preprints
{{Cite AV media}} audio and visual sources வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite AV media notes}} liner notes from albums, DVDs, CDs and similar audio-visual media
{{Cite book}} books வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite conference}} conference papers வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite episode}} television or radio programs and episodes வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite interview}} interviews
{{Cite journal}} academic and scientific papers and journals வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite magazine}} magazines and newsletters வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite mailing list}} archived public mailing lists
{{Cite map}} maps
{{Cite news}} news articles in print, video, audio or web வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Partial
வார்ப்புரு:Elucidate
வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast
{{Cite press release}} press releases வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite report}} unpublished reports by government departments, instrumentalities, operated companies, etc. வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite serial}} audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}} signs, plaques and other visual sources வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite speech}} speeches
{{Cite techreport}} technical reports
{{Cite thesis}} theses வார்ப்புரு:Yes
{{Cite web}} web sources not characterized by another template வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes வார்ப்புரு:Yes

வார்ப்புரு:notelist

Specific source[தொகு]

There are a number of templates that are CS1 compliant, because they use a CS1 template as a base, but are tied to a specific source; these are listed in Category:Citation Style 1 specific-source templates.

How the templates work[தொகு]

CS1 uses a series of templates that provide a consistent output. The main difference is in parameters optimized for the subject. For example, {{cite book}} has fields for title and chapter, whereas {{cite journal}} has fields for journal and title.

This help page uses the names most commonly used across the templates series; see each template's documentation for details.

CS1 templates present a citation generally as:

  • With author:
வார்ப்புரு:Cite journal
  • Without author:
வார்ப்புரு:Cite journal

(where "n.d." could also be any other valid date formatted per the MOS)

Authors[தொகு]

An author may be cited using separate parameters for the author's surname and given name by using வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para respectively. If a cited source has multiple authors, subsequent authors can be listed in the citation using வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para, etc. as shown in the following example:[Note 1]

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe. 


If a cited source has a large number of authors, one can limit the number of authors displayed when the citation is published by using the வார்ப்புரு:para parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.

If a cited author is notable and the author has a Wikipedia article, the author's name can be linked with வார்ப்புரு:para. If a citation includes multiple notable authors, one may use வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, etc. This method is used because வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para do not allow wikilinking. Please note that வார்ப்புரு:para cannot be used to link to an external website; the external link will not render correctly. Below is an example of a wikilinked author credit:

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |author-link=Stephen Hawking |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy. George's Secret Key to the Universe. 


When an author is cited, the date of the cited work is displayed after the author's name, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |last=Hawking |first=Stephen |author-link=Stephen Hawking |last2=Hawking |first2=Lucy |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |year=2007}}
Hawking, Stephen; Hawking, Lucy (2007). George's Secret Key to the Universe. 


If no author is cited, the date appears after the title, as shown in the example below:

{{cite book |title=George's Secret Key to the Universe |year=2007}}
George's Secret Key to the Universe. 2007. 


If the cited source does not credit an author, as is common with newswire reports, press releases or company websites use:

வார்ப்புரு:para

This HTML comment alerts fact-checking and citation-fixing editors, and potentially bots, that the cited source did not name an author—the author was not overlooked. Without this entry editors and bots would waste time researching cited sources for a non-existent author credit.

When using வார்ப்புரு:para avoid citations like {{cite news |work=Weekday Times|author=Weekday Times editors|title=...}}, unless the article is on a field in which the majority of professional journals covering that field use such a citation style.

Editors should use an வார்ப்புரு:para organizational citation when the cited source, such as a committee report, specifically names an official body or a sub-unit of the publisher as the collective author of the work, e.g. வார்ப்புரு:para or வார்ப்புரு:para. Do not use வார்ப்புரு:para to assert what you think was probably the collective author when the source itself does not specifically specify a collective author; doing so is original research and falsification of source verifiability and reliability.

வார்ப்புரு:para should never hold the name of more than one author. Separate individual authors into enumerated individual வார்ப்புரு:para parameters.

Editors[தொகு]

An editor may be cited using separate parameters for the editor's last and first name. A single or first editor would use வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para; subsequent editors would use வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para, etc.

If an editor has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that Wikipedia article using வார்ப்புரு:para. If a cited work has multiple editors, you may use வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, etc. to wikilink to each editor's Wikipedia article. This method is used because வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para do not allow wikilinking. வார்ப்புரு:para cannot be used to link to an external website.

If a cited source has a large number of editors, one can limit the number of editors displayed when the citation is published using the வார்ப்புரு:para parameter as described in detail in the Display options section of this help page.

Translators[தொகு]

A translator may be cited using separate parameters for the translator's last and first name. A single or first translator would use வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para; subsequent translators would use வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para, etc.

If a translator has a Wikipedia article, you may wikilink to that Wikipedia article using வார்ப்புரு:para. If a cited work has multiple translators, you may use வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, etc. to wikilink to each translator's Wikipedia article. This method is used because வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para do not allow wikilinking. வார்ப்புரு:para cannot be used to link to an external website.

Others[தொகு]

  • others: This parameter is used to credit contributors other than an author or an editor, such as an illustrator. You should include both the type of contribution and the name of the contributor, for example வார்ப்புரு:para.

Dates[தொகு]

Dates are indicated by these parameters:

  • date: Full date of publication edition being referenced, in the same format as other dates in citations in the same article. Must not be wikilinked.
  • orig-year: Original publication year, for display (in square brackets) after the date (or year). For clarity, please supply specifics, for instance orig-year=first published 1859 or orig-year=composed 1904. This parameter displays only if there is a value for date (or year).

When a source does not have a publication date, use வார்ப்புரு:para or வார்ப்புரு:para

Acceptable date formats are shown in the "Acceptable date formats" table of the வார்ப்புரு:section link. Further points:

  • Prescriptions about date formats only apply when the date is expressed in terms of Julian or Gregorian dates, or which use one of the seasons (spring, summer, autumn or fall, winter). Sources are at liberty to use other ways of expressing dates, such as "spring/summer" or a date in a religious calendar; editors should report the date as expressed by the source. Although the seasons are not normally capitalized, they are capitalized when used as dates in CS1 templates, and the capitalization of the season stated by the source may be altered to follow this convention. In cases where the date as expressed in the source is not compatible with the template software, the citation should be created without using a template.
  • Do not wikilink.
  • Access and archive dates in references should be in either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD.

Date compliance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style[தொகு]

CS1 uses வார்ப்புரு:section link (MOS:DATEFORMAT) as the reference for all date format checking performed by Module:Citation/CS1. For various reasons, CS1 is not fully compliant with MOS:DATEFORMAT. This table indicates CS1 compliance with the listed sections of MOS:DATEFORMAT.

CS1 compliance with Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers
section compliant comment
Acceptable date formats table yes Exceptions: linked dates not supported;
sortable dates not supported ({{dts}} etc.);
proper name dates not supported with the exception of 'Christmas YYYY';
shortened month names longer than three characters or with terminating periods not supported
Unacceptable date formats table yes
Consistency yesவார்ப்புரு:dagger Article-level restrictions are beyond the scope of CS1
வார்ப்புரு:daggerCS1/CS2 templates follow the format specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} templates; see Auto-formatting citation template dates
Strong national ties to a topic no
Retaining existing format no
Era style no Dates earlier than 100 not supported. Wikipedia does not treat ancient manuscripts as sources that can be cited directly; a specific, modern, published edition is what goes in the source citation. Thus, the date of the source actually consulted should be provided in வார்ப்புரு:para, and the date of the ancient source may be provided in வார்ப்புரு:para; the format of the orig-year value is not checked for errors.
Julian and Gregorian calendars limited Julian prior to 1582; Gregorian from 1582; assumes Gregorian in the overlap period of 1582 – c. 1923
Ranges yes Exceptions: does not support the use of – or  
does not support dates prior to 100;
does not support solidus separator (/)
does not support " to " as a date separator
does not support YYYY–YY where the two-digit year is less than 13 (change to YYYY–YYYY to eliminate the error message)
Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates yes Exceptions: does not support {{circa}} or {{floruit}};
does not support dates prior to 100;
Supports c. only with a single year value (no ranges or day/month combinations).
Days of the week no
Seasons limited CS1 capitalizes seasons used as dates in citations, in line with external style guides
Decades no
Centuries and millennia no
Abbreviations for long periods of time no

Date range, multiple sources in same year[தொகு]

If dates are used with the ref=harv parameter, the year range is 100 to present without era indication (AD, BC, CE, BCE). In the case where the same author has written more than one work in the same year, a lower-case letter may be appended to the year in the date parameter (வார்ப்புரு:xt) or the year parameter (வார்ப்புரு:xt).

Auto-formatting citation template dates[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:use dmy dates Citation Style 1 and 2 templates automatically render dates (வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, etc) in the style specified by the article's {{use dmy dates}} or {{use mdy dates}} template. Because it is allowed by WP:MOSDATES, the CS1/CS2 templates can automatically format dates in a variety of styles. Editors may choose how CS1/CS2 templates render dates by the use of வார்ப்புரு:para in the article's வார்ப்புரு:tld template.

acceptable வார்ப்புரு:pipecs1-dates= keywords
keyword definition
l long-form publication and access- / archive-dates;
this is the default case when வார்ப்புரு:para is omitted or empty
ll
ls long-form publication dates; abbreviated access- / archive-dates
ly long-form publication dates; year-initial numeric access- / archive-dates (ymd)
s abbreviated publication and access- / archive-dates
ss
sy abbreviated publication dates; year-initial numeric access- / archive-dates (ymd)
y year-initial numeric publication, access- and archive-dates (ymd);
cs1|2 cannot reformat Month YYYY, Season YYYY, date-ranges of any form, or Julian calendar dates into ymd format
yy

Example: to have the CS1/CS2 templates in an article render their publication dates in the long form (fully spelled-out month names) with access-/archive-dates rendered in short form (abbreviated month names), write:

{{use dmy dates|date=ஏப்பிரல் 2024|cs1-dates=ls}}

This documentation page has {{use dmy dates|date=ஏப்பிரல் 2024|cs1-dates=ls}} at the top of this section so this cs1 template will render with a long-form publication date and an abbreviated access date:

{{cite web |title=Example Webpage |url=//example.com |website=Example |date=Oct 31, 2017 |access-date=2017-12-05}}
வார்ப்புரு:cite web

This global setting may be overridden in individual CS1/CS2 templates by use of வார்ப்புரு:para; abbreviated date forms are not supported by வார்ப்புரு:para.

Nota bene: CS1/CS2 auto-date formatting does not apply when previewing an article section that does not contain a வார்ப்புரு:tld template.

Titles and chapters[தொகு]

  • title The title of the cited source. Titles are displayed in italics, except for short works such as a {{cite press release}} and cited articles in {{cite news}}, {{cite journal}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite conference}}, and {{cite podcast}}, where the title is shown in quotation marks. Use title case unless the cited source covers a scientific, legal or other technical topic and sentence case is the predominant style in journals on that topic. Use either title case or sentence case consistently throughout the article. Do not omit a leading "The" from the title. Subtitles are typically separated from titles with ": " though " – " is also used. As with trademarks, Wikipedia வார்ப்புரு:em attempt to emulate any stylistic flourishes used by the cited source's publisher, such as ALL-CAPS, all-lower-case, வார்ப்புரு:sm, etc.; use either standard title case or sentence case consistently. If the cited source is itself notable and has a Wikipedia article, the title can be wikilinked. Wikilinking the title will make it impossible to use the "url" parameter to link to an external copy of the cited source, so only do this when citing works that do not need to be externally linked. A link to the actual source is preferred to a link to a Wikipedia article about the source.
  • script-title: Languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet, Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc., should not be italicized and may also read right-to-left (rtl). To include titles in these languages, use script-title. Titles in script-title are wrapped in special HTML markup to isolate rtl script from adjacent left-to-right text. Part of that special markup is a language attribute that browsers can use to assist in the proper display of the script. Editors may add a prefix to the script that will identify the language. The prefix is an ISO 639-1 two-character language code followed by a colon: வார்ப்புரு:para. Unrecognized codes are ignored and will display in the rendered citation.
  • trans-title: If the cited source is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. This field will be displayed in square brackets after the title and will be linked to வார்ப்புரு:para if used.
  • chapter The title of the cited chapter from the source, written in full. Displayed in quotes before the title. For websites arranged in sections the "at" parameter serves a similar function: வார்ப்புரு:para
  • script-chapter: Languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet, Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, etc., may possibly read right-to-left (rtl). To include chapter titles in these languages, use script-chapter. Chapter titles in script-chapter are wrapped in special HTML markup to isolate rtl script from adjacent left-to-right text. Part of that special markup is a language attribute that browsers can use to assist in the proper display of the script. Editors may add a prefix to the script that will identify the language. The prefix is an ISO 639-1 two-character language code followed by a colon: வார்ப்புரு:para. Unrecognized codes are ignored and will display in the rendered citation. This field will be displayed following the transliterated title.
  • trans-chapter: If the cited source is in a foreign language, an English translation of the cited chapter title can be given here. This field will be displayed in square brackets within the quotation marks which enclose the chapter field.

Titles containing certain characters will both display and link incorrectly unless those characters are replaced or encoded like this:

Character Must be replaced with
newline space
[ [
] ]
| |

Type[தொகு]

  • type: Specifies the type of work cited. Appears in parentheses immediately after the title. Some templates use a default that can be overridden; example: {{cite press release}} will show (Press release) by default. Other useful values are Review, Systemic review, Meta-analysis or Original article.

Language[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:csdoc

Work and publisher[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:see

  • work: Used by some templates such as {{cite web}} (where it is aliased to website), {{cite news}} (aliased to newspaper), {{cite magazine}} (aliased to magazine), {{cite journal}} (aliased to journal), and others where the citation is usually to a specific item (given in the "title" parameter) found in a larger work (this "work" parameter), most commonly an article in a website or print periodical, or an episode in a TV series. வார்ப்புரு:em, which is for the publishing company. If the work is notable and has an article in Wikipedia, it should be wiki-linked at first appearance in citations in the article. If the "title" is already linked-to externally, do not externally link to the "work". If the work title as given by the site/publication would be exactly or substantially the same as the name of the publisher, do not use the "publisher" parameter (see below for more detail).
On websites, in most cases "work" is the name of the website (as usually given in the logo/banner area of the site, and/or appearing in the வார்ப்புரு:tag of the homepage, which may appear as the page title in your browser tab, depending on browser). Do not append ".com" or the like if the site's actual title does not include it (thus வார்ப்புரு:para, not Salon.com). If no clear title can be identified, or the title explicitly is the domain name, then use the site's domain name. Do not falsify the work's name by adding descriptive verbiage like "Website of [Publisher]" or "[Publisher]'s Homepage". Capitalize for reading clarity, and omit "www.", e.g. convert "www.veterinaryresourcesuk.com" to "VeterinaryResourcesUK.com".
Many journals use highly abbreviated titles when citing other journals (e.g. J Am Vet Med for Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association) because specialists in the field the journal covers usually already know what these abbreviations mean. Our readers usually do not, so these abbreviations should always be expanded.
If the titled item being cited is part of some other larger work, as in a book in a series, a special issue of a periodical, or a sub-site at a domain (e.g., you are citing the law school's section of a university's website system), it is usually better to use the name of that more specific work than just that of the entire larger work. Various citation templates provide separate fields for such information, e.g. வார்ப்புரு:paraவார்ப்புரு:paraவார்ப்புரு:paraவார்ப்புரு:para in {{Cite book}}. If the nature of the work and its relation to the site, book, or other context in which it is found is complicated or confusing, simply explain the situation after the citation template and before the வார்ப்புரு:xtag that closes the citation.
If the work is self-published, this is a very important fact about potential reliability of the source, and needs to be specified; no consensus exists for the exact value of வார்ப்புரு:para in such a case, but some printed style guides suggest "author", while many Wikipedia editors have used "self-published" for increased clarity. When an exhaustive attempt to discover the name of the publisher (try whois for websites, and WorldCat for books, etc.) fails, use வார்ப்புரு:para to explicitly indicate that this was checked, so other editors do not waste time duplicating your fruitless efforts. Do not guess at the publisher when this information is not clear. See next entry for co-published works and how to specify multiple publishers and their locations.
  • location: Geographical place of publication (வார்ப்புரு:em where you found your copy, nor location of material in the source). This is usually வார்ப்புரு:var, or வார்ப்புரு:var. The city name by itself can be used for world-recognized cities like New York, London (except in articles about Canadian topics), Paris, Tokyo. Simply having a unique name does not mean it is globally recognizable; e.g., many people do not know where Mumbai is, especially if they are old enough that it was called Bombay for much of their lives. If in doubt, be more not less specific, since "Toronto, Canada" and "San Francisco, California" do not actually hurt anything. Be more specific when a வார்ப்புரு:var would be ambiguous, e.g. வார்ப்புரு:para, versus வார்ப்புரு:para. Do not use sub-national postal abbreviations ("DE", "Wilts", etc.), per MOS:POSTABBR. The location parameter should be omitted when it is implied by the name of the work, e.g. The Sydney Morning Herald. The location parameter should be used when the location is part of a common appellation of but not the actual title of a periodical. For example, the newspaper sometimes called the New York Daily News is actually Daily News and can be entered with வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para, which yields: Daily News. New York. A similar example is The Times of London (contrast The New York Times). Per WP:SAYWHEREYOUGOTIT, provide the location of the edition you are using (e.g., if a publisher has operations in both New York and London and you have the London-published edition, use வார்ப்புரு:para, even if the publisher's corporate HQ is in New York). If your edition specifically gives multiple locations, this can be indicated with, e.g., வார்ப்புரு:para. This same technique can be used for co-published works, e.g.: வார்ப்புரு:paraவார்ப்புரு:para; just get them in corresponding order in both parameters. The templates do வார்ப்புரு:em have separate வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, etc., parameters. For historical publications that are still worth citing and still findable (e.g. via book digitizers – see the "via" parameter below), do not confuse the வார்ப்புரு:em (printing press owner-operator) with the வார்ப்புரு:em (organization or person that sponsored the work); an edition may have a printer's name in larger type than the publisher, but for citation purposes we care about the publisher. If the distinction cannot be determined for certain in a particular case, list both. While some off-site publishers lean toward omitting publishing locations, they can serve more than purely bibliographical purposes on Wikipedia (e.g. an overabundance of material published in one place in an article about another place may reveal an editorial bias).
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if date or year are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via (optional): Name of the content deliverer (when they are வார்ப்புரு:em the publisher). "via" is not a replacement for "publisher", but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original, or when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, or as suggested in WP:The Wikipedia Library, e.g. WP:Credo accounts/Citations. See also வார்ப்புரு:section link. Typical uses of this parameter are identification of a book-scanning and -databasing project such as those provided by the Internet Archive, Project Gutenberg, and Google Books; journal indexing and search services through which we commonly find academic articles, e.g. PubMed Central, Paperity, and JSTOR; and other aggregators or indexers of previously-published content, such as Dictionary.com. Use via only when a standard identifier cannot be used (see வார்ப்புரு:section link). Example: {{Cite dictionary |entry=skeptic |entry-url= https://www.dictionary.com/browse/skeptic?s=t#collins-section |title=[[Collins English Dictionary]] |edition=Complete & Unabridged Digital |date=2012 |location=London |publisher=[[HarperCollins]] |via=[[Dictionary.com]] |access-date=16 ஏப்பிரல் 2024}}

Pages[தொகு]

CS1/CS2 template support for
வார்ப்புரு:pipevolume=, வார்ப்புரு:pipeissue=, வார்ப்புரு:pipepage(s)=
template வார்ப்புரு:pipevolume= வார்ப்புரு:pipeissue= வார்ப்புரு:pipepage(s)=
{{citation}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite arXiv}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite AV media}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite AV media notes}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite bioRxiv}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite book}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite citeseerx}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
வார்ப்புரு:plainlist வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
வார்ப்புரு:plainlist வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite encyclopedia}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite episode}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite interview}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite journal}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite magazine}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite mailing list}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
வார்ப்புரு:plainlist வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
வார்ப்புரு:plainlist வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite news}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite newsgroup}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite podcast}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite press release}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite report}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite serial}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite sign}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite speech}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no
{{cite ssrn}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite techreport}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite thesis}} வார்ப்புரு:yes வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes
{{cite web}} வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:no வார்ப்புரு:yes

An editor may use any one of the following parameters in a given citation to refer to the specific page(s) or place in a cited source that contains the information that supports the article text. If more than one of the following parameters are used in the same citation, the error message Extra |pages= or |at= (help) will display in the published citation. When more than one of the following parameters is used in error, வார்ப்புரு:para overrides both வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para; வார்ப்புரு:para overrides வார்ப்புரு:para. To resolve the error, remove extra parameters of this type until only one remains in the affected citation.

If the same source is reused with different pages, separate citations must be created. A way around this problem is to use a short citation {{sfn}}, or {{rp}} to provide linked page number citations.

Edition identifiers[தொகு]

  • edition: Identifies the particular edition of a cited source when the source has more than one edition, such as "2nd", "Revised", etc. Note that this parameter automatically displays " ed." after your entry. For example, வார்ப்புரு:para displays as: Revised third ed. The edition parameter can be omitted if there is no content difference between two editions of the same work; e.g. if a book was identically published in the UK and the US except, for example, ISBN number and cover art, it is not necessary to indicate either "UK" or "US" edition; or if citing minute:seconds of a film available in both a regular edition and a "Special Limited Collector's Edition", if the running time and cut are the same, it is not necessary to cite the particular edition.
  • series: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted. For journal series, வார்ப்புரு:para should be limited to வார்ப்புரு:code, வார்ப்புரு:code, or similar.வார்ப்புரு:refn
  • volume: For a source published in several volumes. This field is displayed in bold after the title and series parameters. An alternative is to include the volume information in the title parameter after the main title.
  • issue: When the source is part of a series that is published periodically. Aliases: number.

External links[தொகு]

Online sources[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:main Links to sources are regarded as conveniences and are not required, except when citing Web-only sources. There are many digital libraries with works that may be used as sources.

  • Links should be to full versions of the source.
  • Online sources that require payment or subscription may be included per the verifiability policy.

Do not link to: வார்ப்புரு:main

  • Sites that do not have permission to republish the work or which otherwise violate copyright.
  • Commercial sites such as Amazon, unless no alternative exists.
  • Reviews of the work.
  • Very short extracts such as Google Books snippet view where there is not enough context to verify the content, unless the entire work is also freely available there. (See WP:BOOKLINKS)

Link formats[தொகு]

Links should be kept as simple as possible. For example, when performing a search for a Google Book, the link for Monty Python and Philosophy would look like:

https://books.google.com/books?id=NPDgD546-doC&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

But can be trimmed to:

https://books.google.com/?id=NPDgD546-doC&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

or:

https://books.google.com/?id=NPDgD546-doC&printsec=frontcover

or:

https://books.google.com/?id=NPDgD546-doC (if Google Books does not provide the cover page).

Pages[தொகு]

A direct link to a specific page may be used if supported by the host. For example, the link to page 172 of Monty Python and Philosophy on Google Books:

https://books.google.com/?id=NPDgD546-doC&pg=PA172

like so:

|page=[https://books.google.com/?id=wPQelKFNA5MC&pg=PA172 172]

Special characters[தொகு]

URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: may require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.

If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:

sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7b %7c %7d

Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.

Access date[தொகு]

  • access-date: The full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. It is not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is not required for links to copies of published research papers accessed via DOI or a published book, but should be used for links to news articles on commercial websites (these can change from time to time, even if they are also published in a physical medium). Note that access-date is the date that the URL was checked to not just be working, but to support the assertion being cited (which the current version of the page may not do). Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.

Icons[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:main URLs with certain filename extensions or URI schemes will apply an icon specific to that file type. This is done through MediaWiki CSS, not these templates.

Web archives[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:see

  • archive-url
  • archive-date

The original link may become unavailable. When an archived version is located, the original URL is retained and வார்ப்புரு:para is added with a link to an archived copy of a web page, usually from services like WebCite and the Internet Archive. வார்ப்புரு:para must be added to show the date the page was archived, not the date the link was added. When வார்ப்புரு:para is used, வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para are required, else an error will show. When an archived link is used, the citation displays with the title linked to the archive and the original link at the end: Monty Python and Philosophy. https://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC. 


Monty Python and Philosophy. https://books.google.com/books?id=wPQelKFNA5MC. 


When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting வார்ப்புரு:para or வார்ப்புரு:para suppresses display of the original URL (but வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para are still required).

Identifiers[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:csdoc

A custom identifier can be specified through வார்ப்புரு:csdoc

Registration or subscription required[தொகு]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors can signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation. Nota bene: access icons do not display correctly for editors who use Modern skin.

There are four access levels split between the url-holding parameters and the identifier parameters.

Access level of url-holding parameters[தொகு]

There are several url-holding parameters. Each may be marked with a access icon. Links inserted with any of the url-holding parameters are expected to be free-to-read by default, so வார்ப்புரு:para is not valid. For a URL that is not free-to-read, editors may use the matching access-icon parameter with the appropriate keyword.

url-holding parameter access icons
url parameter access icon parameter supported keywords
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:plainlist
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para

Access level of identifiers[தொகு]

Links inserted by identifiers such as வார்ப்புரு:para are not expected to offer a free full text by default. If they do, editors can use வார்ப்புரு:para (in the case of வார்ப்புரு:para) to indicate the relevant access level.

Some identifiers always link to free full texts. In this case, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. This is the case for வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para.

identifier parameter access icons
url parameter access icon parameter supported keywords
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para freeFreely accessible – the source is free to read for anyone (not supported by வார்ப்புரு:para)
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para
வார்ப்புரு:para வார்ப்புரு:para

Old access parameters[தொகு]

The parameters வார்ப்புரு:para and வார்ப்புரு:para are no longer supported. They were used to indicate the access level of a citation. They were deprecated because they did not indicate the link to which they applied. Editors should use வார்ப்புரு:para or வார்ப்புரு:para instead, when the restriction applies to வார்ப்புரு:para. If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

Quote[தொகு]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source; enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote must include any terminating punctuation.

Anchors[தொகு]

{{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |year=2006 |ref=harv}}
Creates an anchor named CITEREFHardcastle2006 which may be linked from {{harv|Hardcastle|2006|pp=12-34}}.
{{cite book |first=Gary L. |last=Hardcastle |first2=George A. |last2=Reisch |title=Monty Python and Philosophy |year=2006 |ref=harv}}
Creates an anchor named CITEREFHardcastleReisch2006 which may be linked from {{harv|Hardcastle|Reisch|2006|pp=12-34}}.
  • வார்ப்புரு:para: Creates a custom anchor defined by ID. This is useful where the author and/or date is unknown. The {{harvid}} template may be used here to create an anchor suitable for a {{harv}}, {{sfn}} etc. For example, ref={{harvid|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006}} creates an anchor which may be linked from {{harv|Monty Python and Philosophy|2006|pp=12-34}}.

Display options[தொகு]

These features are not often used, but can customize the display for use with other styles. வார்ப்புரு:csdoc

et al.[தொகு]

et al. is the abbreviation of the Latin et alii ('and others'). It is used to complete a list of authors of a published work, where the complete list is considered overly long. The abbreviation is widely used in English, thus it is not italicized per MOS:FOREIGN.

Printing[தொகு]

When viewing the page, CS1 templates render the URL to the title to create a link; when printing, the URL is printed. External link icons are not printed.

Elements not included[தொகு]

Not all factually accurate pieces of information about a source are used in a Citation Style 1 citation. Examples of information not included:

  • The total number of pages in a cited source
  • The name of the library that provided access to an electronic copy of a cited source
  • The name of the library that owns a physical copy of a cited work
  • The library record and/or shelf location of a physical copy of a cited work

வார்ப்புரு:main CS1 templates may be inserted manually or by use of tools:

Error checking:

TemplateData[தொகு]

This section documents interactions between WP:TemplateData and tools which use that data to edit Wikipedia such as VisualEditor and bots. Before making changes to the TemplateData be aware of these interactions.

User:InternetArchiveBot[தொகு]

  • If an argument is set to "required" the argument will be added to all templates edited by IABot. This including adding empty arguments. For example when வார்ப்புரு:para is "required" IABot makes the following edit: [1].

Common issues[தொகு]

வார்ப்புரு:para does not show.
If வார்ப்புரு:para is not supplied, then வார்ப்புரு:para does not show; by design.
The bare URL shows before the title.
If the வார்ப்புரு:para field includes a newline or an invalid character then the link will be malformed; see Web links.
The title appears in red.
If URL is supplied, then the title cannot be wikilinked.
The URL is not linked and shows in brackets.
The URL must include the URI scheme in order for MediaWiki to recognize it as a link. For example: www.example.org vs. http://www.example.org.
A field is truncated.
A pipe (|) in the value will truncate it. Use {{!}} instead.
The template markup shows.
Double open brackets [[ are used in a field without closing double brackets ]].
The author shows in brackets with an external link icon.
The use of an URL in வார்ப்புரு:para will break the link; this field is for the name of the Wikipedia article about the author, not a website.
Multiple author or editor names are defined and one or more does not show
The parameters must be used in sequence, i.e. if வார்ப்புரு:para or வார்ப்புரு:para is not defined, then வார்ப்புரு:para will not show. By design.
வார்ப்புரு:para, வார்ப்புரு:para or வார்ப்புரு:para do not show.
These parameters are mutually exclusive, and only one will show; by design.

See also[தொகு]

  1. The number of authors that can be listed in the citation and displayed when published is unlimited.

References[தொகு]

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